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Monday, November 2, 2020 | History

2 edition of Stratospheric turbulence and temperature gradients measured by an RB-57F found in the catalog.

Stratospheric turbulence and temperature gradients measured by an RB-57F

J. I. MacPherson

Stratospheric turbulence and temperature gradients measured by an RB-57F

Coldscan flights 2 to 18

by J. I. MacPherson

  • 79 Want to read
  • 24 Currently reading

Published by National Research Council of Canada in [Ottawa .
Written in English

    Places:
  • United States.
    • Subjects:
    • Atmospheric turbulence.,
    • Atmospheric temperature -- United States.,
    • Stratosphere -- United States.,
    • Meteorology in aeronautics.

    • Edition Notes

      Statementby J. I. MacPherson and E. G. Morrissey.
      SeriesNational Research Council of Canada. Aeronautical report, LR-527, Aeronautical report ;, LR-527.
      ContributionsMorrissey, E. G., joint author.
      Classifications
      LC ClassificationsTL507 .N28 no. 527
      The Physical Object
      Paginationv, 51 p.
      Number of Pages51
      ID Numbers
      Open LibraryOL5736661M
      LC Control Number70589232

        Measured by volume the atmosphere at sea level is composed of 78% nitrogen, % oxygen, % Argon, % Carbon Dioxide and a trace of other gases. Up to about 50 miles the composition of the air is fairly constant, except for a variation in water vapour, which depends on the ambient temperature. Higher-order Turbulence Products of Velocity and Temperature for Adverse Pressure Gradient Boundary Layer Flows The zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer was also measured to compare its data with APG measurements. and Tt are corrected voltage, measured voltage, temperature of hot-wire, ambient temperature at calibration, and local. ITGDT - Ion Temperature Gradient-Driven Turbulence. Looking for abbreviations of ITGDT? It is Ion Temperature Gradient-Driven Turbulence. Ion Temperature Gradient-Driven Turbulence listed as ITGDT. Ion Temperature Gradient-Driven Turbulence - How is Ion Temperature Gradient-Driven Turbulence abbreviated? Unfortunately, this book can't be printed from the OpenBook. If you need to print pages from this book, we recommend downloading it as a PDF. Visit to get more information about this book, to buy it in print, or to download it as a free PDF.


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Stratospheric turbulence and temperature gradients measured by an RB-57F by J. I. MacPherson Download PDF EPUB FB2

In Januarythe National Aeronautical Establishment instrumented a USAF RBF weather reconnaissance aircraft to measure turbulence and temperature gradients encountered on routine flights at altitudes f feet to ab by: 1.

Since Januarya USAF RBF high altitude weather reconnaissance aircraft has carried a special NRC instrumentation system to measure and record stratospheric turbulence and horizontal temperature gradients encountered at altitudes f to ab by: 1. Stratospheric Turbulence and Temperature Gradients Measured by an RBF; Coldscan Flights 57 to Author: J.

Macpherson and E. Morrissey. study of jetliner turbulence encounters, Kadlec () found that the average total temperature change in moderate turbulence was 5C, and only 3C in smooth or very light chop conditions.

McLean () found poor correlation between horizontal temperature gra dients measured on. Abstract Data obtained from U-2 HICAT flights were used to relate the magnitudes of horizontal temperature changes to flight conditions.

The empirical findings can be used in estimating the effecti Cited by: 2. Detailed stratospheric wind and temperature data were gathered by aircraft over the mountains of southern Colorado on 1 March In a unique operation, two instrumented RBF aircraft flew a total of twelve upwind and downwind legs at altitudes of 13 to 20km.with an average separation of by: Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): (external link) http Author: J.

Macpherson and E. Morrissey. STRATOSPHERIC TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS AND MODELS FOR AEROSPACE PLANE DESIGN L.J. Ehernberger * NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility P.O.

Box Edwards, California Abstract Progress in computational atmospheric dynamics is exhibiting the ability of numerical simulation to describe instability processes associated with turbulence Cited by:   During the s pioneering balloon measurements studying stratospheric turbulence were performed by, e.g., Barat [a, b], Barat and Genie [], and Barat and Bertin [].

Their observations reveal vertical depths of the turbulent layers Cited by: Full text of "Stratospheric turbulence measurements and models for aerospace plane design" See other formats v _ r NASA Technical Memorandum //vyy /5V?B Q />^ ^ r" Stratospheric Turbulence Measure merits and Models for Aerospace Plane Design L.J.

Ehemberger (MASA-TMZ62) STRATOSPHERIC TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS AND MODELS FOR AEROSPACE. Stratospheric turbulence and temperature gradients measured by RBF () Google Scholar Present address: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Benin, Private Mail BagBenin City, by: 1.

About Cookies, including instructions on how to turn off cookies if you wish to do so. By continuing to browse this site you agree to us using cookies as described in. Stratospheric Turbulence Measure-ments and Models for Aerospace Plane Design L.J. Ehernberger t i (NASA-TM-IO4Z62) STRATOSPHERIC TURBUL[NCE MEASUREMENTS AND MOOELS FOR AEROSPACE PLANE DESIGN (NASA) 28 p G3/47 NB Unclns December National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

As I strengthen the horizontal temperature gradient in the troposphere, the ____ and _____ will increase at 30, ft pressure gradient and wind speed The meridional (north-south) tropospheric temperature gradient is strongest in ______.

since the s made it possible to measure turbulence down to scales of millimeter and thus to study the whole turbulence spectrum down to the viscous subrange.

With the help of hot wire anemometers (also called constant temperature anemometers, CTA) we are able to measure velocity fluctuations with a vertical resolution of mm (Fig. Introduction [2] Atmospheric turbulence is usually characterized by the refractive index structure function constant C n 2 or by the energy dissipation rate ε.

Different techniques have been used in the past to measure these atmospheric turbulence parameters in situ. By recording velocity fluctuations along the flight path of an instrumented aircraft, the dissipation rate can be inferred Cited by: Measurements of trace gases in the tropical tropopause layer.

suitable absorption line for the stratospheric measurement of this compound (at and cm-1). temperature in the.

Turbulence parameters in the tropo-stratosphere are analyzed using high-resolution balloon temperature measurements collected during the MUTSI (MU radar, Temperature. Clear-air turbulence (CAT) is the turbulent movement of air masses in the absence of any visual clues, such as clouds, and is caused when bodies of air moving at widely different speeds meet.

The atmospheric region most susceptible to CAT is the high troposphere at altitudes of around 7,–12, metres (23,–39, ft) as it meets the tropopause.

Temperature Gradient method this method gives the classification of atmospheric stability on the basis of temperature which is the major meteorological parameter. The temperature determines the radiation as well as control wind movement thus this method was a easy method to determine stability based on temperature fluctuations.

Stratospheric ozone attenuates harmful ultraviolet radiation and protects the Earth’s biosphere is also of fundamental importance for the chemistry of the lowermost part of the Cited by: Potential temperature (K) Fig. Vertical profiles of (a) aerosol concentration in arbi­ trary units and (b) potential temperature observed overland in convective conditions (see Garratt, ; fig.

it may be even smaller, perhaps no more than m and strongly influenced by internal wave by:   Temperatures acquired by the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) during shuttle mission STS have provided measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space.

Large-amplitude, long-wavelength mountain waves at heights of 15 to 30 kilometers above the southern Andes Mountains were observed and characterized, with vigorous Cited by:   The temperature gradient in each layer is determined by the heat source of the layer.

The different temperature gradients in each of the four main layers create the thermal structure of the atmosphere. There are several layers of the atmosphere. The first layer is troposphere. It is the closest to the ground and is sometimes referred to as the.

measured on a routine basis. Therefore, indirect methods are introduced to calculate these parameters. Such methods are generally based on concepts in which the heat, momentum and moisture fluxes at the surface play a central role.

The profiles of temperature, wind and turbulence are all interrelated and dependent on atmospheric stability. This File Size: KB. the stratosphere is statically stable and well stratified, due to its small negative or even positive temperature gradient.

Nevertheless gravity waves can induce instability leading to wave breaking and turbulence. Stratospheric turbulence is assumed to be weak on aver-age compared to, for instance, mesospheric turbulence (e.g.

–Mountain wave turbulence (MWT) •Measured as –Light, moderate or severe –G-load, air speed fluctuations, vertical gust. –Surface air decoupled from gradient flow in free air above friction layer aviation weather hazards. •Not intended as a substitute for a. The wind speeds vary according to the temperature gradient, exceeding 92 kilometres per hour (50 kn), although speeds of over kilometres per hour ( kn) have been measured.

Meteorologists now understand that the path of jet streams steers cyclonic storm systems at lower levels in the atmosphere, and so knowledge of their course has become. Grotjahn, in Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences (Second Edition), Temperature. In the troposphere and lower stratosphere, absorption and emission of radiation alter the air temperature at a rate of a few degrees per day.

This change of air temperature is generally small compared to the difference between the equatorial regions and the polar regions. adiabatic process air masses air parcel aircraft altitude anticyclonic atmosphere average breeze cent centrifugal force circulation climate clouds cold air condensation convection cooling Coriolis force cumulus decrease density dry adiabatic earth earth's surface eddies effect energy equator example Figure flow freezing friction front height.

This region of rising temperature with increasing altitude is the stratosphere which extends up to an altitude of 50 km. Ninety per cent of the atmosphere is in the troposphere, with only % lying above the stratosphere.

2 The measurement unit for atmospheric ozone has been named the Dobson unit in his honour. The official definition is that Cited by: The stratosphere (/ ˈ s t r æ t ə ˌ s f ɪər,-t oʊ-/) is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the stratosphere is stratified (layered) in temperature, with warmer layers higher and cooler layers closer to the Earth; this increase of temperature with altitude is a result of the absorption of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation by.

Another reason is the vertical gradient of radiative cooling in the atmosphere, which will be discussed in chapter 7. Absorption of solar UV radiation by the ozone layer in the stratosphere generates a temperature inversion. Because of this inversion, vertical motions in the stratosphere are strongly suppressed (the stratosphere is stratified.

Possible Duplicate: Manually drawing a gradient in iPhone apps. My application needs to display text in either a UIView or UILabel but the back ground must be a gradient as opposed to a true a graphics program to create desired look is no good as the text may vary depending on data returned from a.

Quick links. New posts; Unanswered topics; Active topics; Search; Smartfeed; FAQ; Rules/FAQ; Join Grand Cru Crü; BerserkerBusiness List. These events can warm the polar stratosphere by as much as 10 degrees Celsius (18 degrees Fahrenheit) per day within a week, reversing the normal north-south temperature gradient that the polar vortex requires to maintain strength.

The polar vortex is believed to be a key driver of tropospheric weather and climate patterns. A layer of O3 found in the lower stratosphere n feet MSL (about 24 km). Characterized by a relatively high concentration of ozone, this layer absorbs damaging UV radiation and is the cause of the increase of temperature with height in the stratosphere.

Turbulence is an important process in most fluid flows and contributes significantly to the transport of momentum, heat and mass. It also plays a role in the generation of fluid friction losses and fluid induced noise. In order to understand the b. Influence of the stratospheric turbulence on the adaptive optics systems performance Mikhail S.

Belen'kii Proc. SPIEAtmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing IV, pg (15 June ); doi: / Each year since the mids, scientists have noted a disappearance of approximately 70% of the ozone (O 3) layer above Antarctica during the Antarctic spring, creating what is commonly known as the “ozone hole.” Ozone An unstable form of oxygen that consists of three oxygen atoms bonded together (O 3).A layer of ozone in the stratosphere helps protect the plants and animals on earth from.

Use of Invariant Modeling. Authors; Authors and affiliations; W. S. Lewellen and Williams, R. B., Statistics of the fine structure of turbulence velocity and temperature fields measured at high Reynolds number, J.

Fluid Mech. 41, – (). Hilst, G. R., The chemistry and diffusion of aircraft exhausts in the lower stratosphere Cited by: In meteorology, the planetary boundary layer (PBL), also known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) or peplosphere, is the lowest part of the atmosphere and its behaviour is directly influenced by its contact with a planetary surface.

On Earth it usually responds to changes in surface radiative forcing in an hour or less. In this layer physical quantities such as flow velocity, temperature.Water temperature profiles were measured at 2-min intervals in a stratified temperate lake with a surface area of sq km and a maximum depth of 10 m from May 7 to August 9, The data were used to calculate the vertical eddy diffusion coefficient K sub z in the hypolimnion.